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Actin filaments control the shape of the cell structure that divides plant cells

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
A Japanese research group using microscopic video analysis provides deeper insight into the mechanics of plant cell division. Their analysis shows that actin filaments control the shape of cell structures, called phragmoplasts, that create the partition between two dividing plant cells. The discovery is expected to lead to a better understanding of plant cell division mechanisms.

Study shows rapid sea level rise along Atlantic coast of North America in 18th century

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Sea levels along a stretch of the Atlantic coast of North America in the 18th century were rising almost as fast as in the 20th century, a new study has revealed.

KIST develops biofuel production process in cooperation with North American researchers

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Biofuel is often touted as a clean fuel, but the fact that it is made using food sources is a major drawback. To address this issue, there has been continuous research on the development of second-generation biofuels using lignocellulosic biomass. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) recently announces that it has developed an effective biofuel production process through the KIST-UBC (University of British Colombia) lab program in Vancouver, Canada.

Cartilage cells, chromosomes and DNA preserved in 75 million-year-old baby duck-billed dinosaur

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
In a paper published online in National Science Review, an international team of scientists present evidence of fossilized cell nuclei and chromosomes within preserved cartilage in a baby duck-billed dinosaur. This dinosaur belongs to Hypacrosaurus and comes from a nesting ground discovered in 1988 by paleontologist Jack Horner in Late Cretaceous sediments of Northwest Montana.

Advancing gene therapies: PIP pip hurray!

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
A new compound has the potential to bind to DNA and activate genes, which could lead to new treatments for cancers and hereditary diseases. Zutao Yu, Ganesh Pandian Namasivayam, and Hiroshi Sugiyama of Kyoto University's Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) collaborated with colleagues in Japan and the USA to design and test a compound that could target specific DNA sequences and recruit gene-modifying molecules. Their findings were published in the journal ChemComm.

Tracking down the mystery of matter

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have measured a property of the neutron more precisely than ever before. In the process they found out that the elementary particle has a significantly smaller electric dipole moment than was previously assumed. With that, it has also become less likely that this dipole moment can help to explain the origin of all matter in the universe.

SUWA: A hyperstable artificial protein that does not denature in high temperatures above 100°C

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Successful development of a highly stable artificial protein that only denatures at 122 °C. Named SUWA, the little protein nanobuliding block pillars are like the lumber poles used in the Onbashira Matsuri which are used to build the holy shrines of Suwa Taisha. Withstanding heat, the hope is that these artificial proteins will be used in nanotechnology and synthetic biology.

Gene therapy generates new neurons to treat Huntington's disease

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare disease with chorea movement and caused by Huntingtin (Htt) gene mutation and neurodegeneration. A research group led by Dr. Gong Chen has developed a novel gene therapy to regenerate functional new neurons in mouse models of HD. The work has been published in Nature Communications on February 27, 2020.

Clinical factors during pregnancy related to congenital cytomegalovirus infection

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
A group led by researchers from Kobe University has illuminated clinical factors that are related to the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborns. They revealed that fever or cold-like symptoms during pregnancy, and threatened miscarriage or threatened premature labor in the second trimester were associated with CMV infection in newborns.

Deep-sea coral gardens discovered in the submarine canyons off south Western Australia

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Stunning 'gardens' of deep-sea corals have been discovered in the Bremer Canyon Marine Park by Australian and international scientists during an oceanographic expedition aboard Schmidt Ocean Institute's R/V Falkor.

Asteroid impact enriches certain elements in seawater

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
University of Tsukuba researchers found two processes immediately after the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact that likely supplied chalcophile elements to the ocean, i.e., impact heating and acid rain. The former produced iron oxides/hydroxides and released chalcophile elements from the struck rock. Iron oxides/hydroxides could have carried chalcophile elements to the seafloor. Acid rain could have supplied some chalcophile elements, especially copper and silver to the ocean, where they accumulated in organic matter.

Anomalies in structure of polyvalent metal melts explained

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Metals and their alloys are the main structural materials of modern civilization. The properties of metal melts are well studied. However, according to Anatoly Mokshin, one of the co-authors of the publication, Chair of the Department of Computational Physics at Kazan Federal University, for more than 25 years, scientists from all over the world have been trying to explain experimentally observed structural features of the melts of such metals as gallium, germanium and bismuth. These features are called "structural anomalies."

Stress-relief substrate helps OLED stretch two-dimensionally?

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Highly functional and free-form displays are critical components to complete the technological prowess of wearable electronics, robotics, and human-machine interfaces. A KAIST team created stretchable OLEDs (Organic Light-Emitting Diodes) that are compliant and maintain their performance under high-strain deformation. Their stress-relief substrates have a unique structure and utilize pillar arrays to reduce the stress on the active areas of devices when strain is applied.

Two sides of a coin: Our own immune cells damage the integrity of the blood-brain barrier

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Researchers have shown that microglia, a class of immune cells in the brain, regulate the permeability of the brain's protective barrier in response to systemic inflammation. During inflammation, microglia initially protect the barrier's integrity, but they can later reverse their behavior and increase the barrier's permeability.

Kids eat more calories in post-game snacks than they burn during the game

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
A new study led by Brigham Young University public health researchers finds the number of calories kids consume from post-game snacks far exceeds the number of calories they actually burn playing in the game.

New platform for engineering ribosomes to 'cook new cuisines'

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Researchers have created a method for cell-free synthesis and evolution of new ribosomes that can specialize in the synthesis of functional materials and therapeutics.

Rare disease in children: the key role of a protein revealed

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Professor Stéphane Lefrançois, a researcher at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), is working on Batten disease, a neurodegenerative genetic disease that primarily affects children. His research focuses on the most common form of the disease -- Batten CLN 3 -- which is caused by mutations in the protein of the same name and for which there is still no cure. They recently published findings about a key role played by protein CLN3 in the Journal of Cell Science.

Old weapon, new target: Dasatinib against angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have shown by in vivo experimentation on a mouse model that angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is highly dependent on T-Cell Receptor Signaling. Further trials also suggest that dasatinib, by targeting the TCR pathway, improved outcomes in both the mouse model and in a clinical trial of five patients who relapsed or were refractory to conventional therapy and therefore showed promise as a candidate drug for AITL treatment.

Researchers announce progress in developing an accurate, noninvasive urine test for prostate cancer

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have made significant progress toward development of a simple, noninvasive liquid biopsy test that detects prostate cancer from RNA and other specific metabolic chemicals in the urine.

Inhalation therapy shows promise against pulmonary fibrosis in mice, rats

Friday February 28th, 2020 05:00:00 AM
A new study shows that lung stem cell secretions -- specifically exosomes and secretomes -- delivered via nebulizer, can help repair lung injuries due to multiple types of pulmonary fibrosis in mice and rats.


 

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Last updated February 28, 2020