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A Japanese research group using microscopic video analysis provides deeper insight into the mechanics of plant cell division. Their analysis shows that actin filaments control the shape of cell structures, called phragmoplasts, that create the partition between two dividing plant cells. The discovery is expected to lead to a better understanding of plant cell division mechanisms.
Sea levels along a stretch of the Atlantic coast of North America in the 18th century were rising almost as fast as in the 20th century, a new study has revealed.
Biofuel is often touted as a clean fuel, but the fact that it is made using food sources is a major drawback. To address this issue, there has been continuous research on the development of second-generation biofuels using lignocellulosic biomass. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST) recently announces that it has developed an effective biofuel production process through the KIST-UBC (University of British Colombia) lab program in Vancouver, Canada.
In a paper published online in National Science Review, an international team of scientists present evidence of fossilized cell nuclei and chromosomes within preserved cartilage in a baby duck-billed dinosaur. This dinosaur belongs to Hypacrosaurus and comes from a nesting ground discovered in 1988 by paleontologist Jack Horner in Late Cretaceous sediments of Northwest Montana.
A new compound has the potential to bind to DNA and activate genes, which could lead to new treatments for cancers and hereditary diseases. Zutao Yu, Ganesh Pandian Namasivayam, and Hiroshi Sugiyama of Kyoto University's Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) collaborated with colleagues in Japan and the USA to design and test a compound that could target specific DNA sequences and recruit gene-modifying molecules. Their findings were published in the journal ChemComm.
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have measured a property of the neutron more precisely than ever before. In the process they found out that the elementary particle has a significantly smaller electric dipole moment than was previously assumed. With that, it has also become less likely that this dipole moment can help to explain the origin of all matter in the universe.
Successful development of a highly stable artificial protein that only denatures at 122 °C. Named SUWA, the little protein nanobuliding block pillars are like the lumber poles used in the Onbashira Matsuri which are used to build the holy shrines of Suwa Taisha. Withstanding heat, the hope is that these artificial proteins will be used in nanotechnology and synthetic biology.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare disease with chorea movement and caused by Huntingtin (Htt) gene mutation and neurodegeneration. A research group led by Dr. Gong Chen has developed a novel gene therapy to regenerate functional new neurons in mouse models of HD. The work has been published in Nature Communications on February 27, 2020.
A group led by researchers from Kobe University has illuminated clinical factors that are related to the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborns. They revealed that fever or cold-like symptoms during pregnancy, and threatened miscarriage or threatened premature labor in the second trimester were associated with CMV infection in newborns.
Stunning 'gardens' of deep-sea corals have been discovered in the Bremer Canyon Marine Park by Australian and international scientists during an oceanographic expedition aboard Schmidt Ocean Institute's R/V Falkor.
University of Tsukuba researchers found two processes immediately after the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact that likely supplied chalcophile elements to the ocean, i.e., impact heating and acid rain. The former produced iron oxides/hydroxides and released chalcophile elements from the struck rock. Iron oxides/hydroxides could have carried chalcophile elements to the seafloor. Acid rain could have supplied some chalcophile elements, especially copper and silver to the ocean, where they accumulated in organic matter.
Metals and their alloys are the main structural materials of modern civilization. The properties of metal melts are well studied. However, according to Anatoly Mokshin, one of the co-authors of the publication, Chair of the Department of Computational Physics at Kazan Federal University, for more than 25 years, scientists from all over the world have been trying to explain experimentally observed structural features of the melts of such metals as gallium, germanium and bismuth. These features are called "structural anomalies."
Highly functional and free-form displays are critical components to complete the technological prowess of wearable electronics, robotics, and human-machine interfaces. A KAIST team created stretchable OLEDs (Organic Light-Emitting Diodes) that are compliant and maintain their performance under high-strain deformation. Their stress-relief substrates have a unique structure and utilize pillar arrays to reduce the stress on the active areas of devices when strain is applied.
Researchers have shown that microglia, a class of immune cells in the brain, regulate the permeability of the brain's protective barrier in response to systemic inflammation. During inflammation, microglia initially protect the barrier's integrity, but they can later reverse their behavior and increase the barrier's permeability.
A new study led by Brigham Young University public health researchers finds the number of calories kids consume from post-game snacks far exceeds the number of calories they actually burn playing in the game.
Researchers have created a method for cell-free synthesis and evolution of new ribosomes that can specialize in the synthesis of functional materials and therapeutics.
Professor Stéphane Lefrançois, a researcher at the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), is working on Batten disease, a neurodegenerative genetic disease that primarily affects children. His research focuses on the most common form of the disease -- Batten CLN 3 -- which is caused by mutations in the protein of the same name and for which there is still no cure. They recently published findings about a key role played by protein CLN3 in the Journal of Cell Science.
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba have shown by in vivo experimentation on a mouse model that angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is highly dependent on T-Cell Receptor Signaling. Further trials also suggest that dasatinib, by targeting the TCR pathway, improved outcomes in both the mouse model and in a clinical trial of five patients who relapsed or were refractory to conventional therapy and therefore showed promise as a candidate drug for AITL treatment.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have made significant progress toward development of a simple, noninvasive liquid biopsy test that detects prostate cancer from RNA and other specific metabolic chemicals in the urine.
A new study shows that lung stem cell secretions -- specifically exosomes and secretomes -- delivered via nebulizer, can help repair lung injuries due to multiple types of pulmonary fibrosis in mice and rats.